Second Language Learners in International Schools
By 2020 it is estimated that there will be more than ten thousand international schools educating five million students. Native speakers of English, the language of instruction in 90 per cent of these schools, will be in the minority. The learning needs of second language learners in national education systems differ fundamentally from those in the international community. This book argues that second language learners in international schools are better provided for within models of instruction that do not assimilate to any political system; where motivation can come from areas other than wanting to belong to a specific culture; and where students can develop all their languages equitably. The authors trace the theories underpinning second language learning programmes in international schools and delve into the complexities of teacher relationships and the influence of curriculum agencies on second language learning. Through case studies and vignettes, they argue for establishing a department of Professional English as a Second Language at the centre of the academic life in each school, whose staff will build on the widely acknowledged potential of second language learners and enhance their capabilities in all their languages.
“As a former ESL teacher and workshop leader, I found myself nodding in agreement page after page of this important and well-researched book. The authors expose the truth that many international schools, unwittingly or even deliberately, disregard the crucial role that a strong, properly staffed ESL and mother tongue programme plays in promoting the language rights of all students and allowing access to the school’s curriculum to help nurture each student’s true potential. It is a compelling argument.”
Victor Ferreira, IBDP Coordinator, American School of The Hague
“This straightforward and ferociously honest study provides vital and attainable suggestions for creating an effective, inclusive ESL programme for international schools. A must-read for teachers and leaders whose goal is to set students up for future academic success.”
Melanie Sanchez, TheLanguageContinuum.com
“This is a great book, offering a clear vision. It gives international schools compelling ammunition to steer away from an ESL "support" model and create truly equitable multilingual schools in which ESL and MT centres of expertise provide complementary professional programmes for students, teachers and parents.”
Joris van den Bosch, Secondary EAL teacher, The British School of Brussels, Belgium.
Foreword, by Virginia Collier
PART 1: INTERNATIONAL SCHOOLS AND INFLUENCES ON THEIR PROVISION
FOR SECOND LANGUAGE STUDENTS;
- Chapter 1. What second language learners bring to international schools, by Patricia Mertin;
- Chapter 2. Characterization of the international school clientele in language matters;
- Chapter 3. ESL students and their requirements in international schools: The encroaching politicization of ESL and MT provision;
PART 2: BILINGUALISM AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION;
- Chapter 4. How the fields of bilingualism and SLA can guide good practice for viable SL models in international schools;
PART 3: THE HUMAN FACTOR;
- Chapter 5. The reality of teacher relationships, their implications for teachers and pedagogy, and the consequences of a deficit model for SLLs;
PART 4: THE ROLE OF EXTERNAL CURRICULUM AND ACCREDITATION BODIES;
- Chapter 6. The role of external bodies, such as the Council of International Schools and the International Baccalaureate, in international schools: The erosion of the acknowledgement of SLL needs and potential;
PART 5: THE CURRENT SITUATION IN AN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL;
- Chapter 7. How one international school is implementing the model proposed in this book, by Sarah Porter;
PART 6: CONSTRUCTIVE SOLUTIONS THAT BUILD CONSISTENTLY ON
INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE TRAJECTORIES;
- Chapter 8. Establishing a department in the secondary school as a ‘centre of expertise’ for all matters ESL and mother tongue;
- Chapter 9. The need for continuing professional development (CPD), by Patricia Mertin;
- Chapter 10. The importance of maintaining mother tongue development, by Patricia Mertin;
- Chapter 11. Advice and guidance for school leaders, teachers and parents;
- Chapter 12. The challenges ahead, by Maurice Carder and Patricia Mertin;
Appendix: Websites for SLLs in international schools; References; Index.
Visit Maurice Carder’s BERA blog:
Second language programmes in international schools at:
Bilingualism in International Schools: A Model for Enriching Language Education
Originally set up for British and American ex-patriates, International Schools are now to be found throughout the world with student bodies consisting largely of non-native speakers of English. I propose a "three-programme" model for addressing the language and curricula needs of these students: a content-based second language programme; a programme of cultural and linguistic training for all staff and administrators; and a mother tongue programme for all students who do not have English as their native language. This book is directed at teachers, parents and school leaders. There are inserted boxes of authentic comments by second language learners, and many useful resources and websites.
"The book is a powerful, cogent plea for International Schools which are truly international, which build on the rich resources of a linguistically diverse student body. It makes for essential reading for anyone involved in the practical business of implementing feasible and educationally rich bilingual programmes in contemporary schools across the world."
Professor Catherine Wallace, School of Culture, Language and Communication, Institute of Education, University of London, UK
The book will be of interest to school administrators and principals, curriculum leaders, specialist mother-tongue and ESL teachers, parents and all those involved in the education of students whose first language is not the dominant language of the school. It would serve as an invaluable resource and as a basis for professional development for individual schools developing policy and practices in the area of bilingual education.
Associate Professor Pauline Gibbons, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
Combine a visionary planner of better education with decades of devoted work and experience as a teacher, administrator and global evaluator of International Schools, with a professional interest in languageS (in plural) and knowledge of their vital importance for all learning and development, and deep engagement in children and youth (whose voices the reader will remember). This mix that has produced a book that should change many of the ways that multilingual and multicultural education in general is envisaged and implemented. Congratulations, Maurice!
Dr Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Roskilde University, Denmark and Åbo Akademi University Vasa, Finland.
Foreword by Jim Cummins
- CHAPTER 1. International Schools: their origins and development. Overview of the three-programme model for second-language Students.
- CHAPTER 2. Second Language (ESL) Programme and related issues
- CHAPTER 3. Appropriate training for school staff
- CHAPTER 4. Mother Tongue Programme
- CHAPTER 5. Enlisting Parents’ Support.
- CHAPTER 6. A journey of discovery: the development of an ESL programme at the Vienna International School
EPILOGUE. Recommendations for effective practice in International Schools
- Assessment test
- VIS Mother tongue programme
- Vienna international school: language policy
- Issues of inclusion and extra payment for ESL tuition